A microcontroller is a computer-on-a-chip or a single-chip computer. Micro suggests that the device is small and controller tells you that the device might be used to control objects, processes or events. Another term to describe a microcontroller is embedded controller because the microcontroller and its support circuits are often built into or embedded in the devices they control. You can find microcontrollers in all kinds of things these days. Any device that measures, stores, controls, calculates, or displays information is a candidate for putting a microcontroller inside. The largest single use for microcontrollers is in automobiles. Every car manufactured today includes at least one microcontroller for controlling the engine and additional systems in the car. In desktop computers, you can find microcontrollers inside keyboards, modems, printers and other peripherals. In test equipment, microcontrollers make it easy to add features such as the ability to store measurements, to create and store user routines and to display messages. Consumer products that use microcontrollers include cameras, video recorders, compact-disk players and ovens.

The Intel 8051 microcontroller is one of the most popular general purpose microcontrollers in use today. It is about 30 years old and still very popular. One of the reasons for popularity of 8051-based microcontrollers is the availability of many excellent compilers, from freeware applications to high-priced professional development tools. The memory structure of the 8051 microcontroller is a complicated and you will definitely need an 8051 microcontroller tutorial to go deep into the concept.

The main reason for their great success and popularity is a skilfully chosen configuration which satisfies different needs of a large number of users allowing at the same time constant expansions. Besides, the software has been developed in great extend in the meantime, and it simply was not profitable to change anything in the microcontroller’s basic core. This is the reason for having a great number of various microcontrollers which basically are solely upgraded versions of the 8051 family.

A very popular programming language is C. It is widely used in development of operating systems, desktop applications and embedded systems. Beside assembly language, C is the most popular programming language used for embedded programming. C for 8051 microcontrollers has been the number one choice among programmers. 8051 microcontrollers are no exception. SDCC is the most popular open-source C compiler for 8051 microcontrollers. The importance of such microcontrollers is attracting many a professionals to take up 8051 microcontroller tutorials. These tutorials demonstrate how to code simple input & output. The tutorials assume basic knowledge of programming and electronics. Massive use of embedded microcontrollers encourages engineers and students to join microcontrollers’ tutorial and training for c programming for embedded microcontrollers so that they can grab new opportunities in the process of development.

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Let’s count on the things which can be discovered with this phone. It has the Nokia Maps which makes it easy to navigate and explore areas. It covers more than 15 million points or locations of interest. The A-GPS installed in it provides navigation for walking or driving. The good thins is that it comes with a three month integrated license.

It doesn’t have the looks but it is a powerhouse. That means for all indulge in work only, it’s a mighty thing. Let’s count on the things which can be discovered with this phone. It has the Nokia Maps which makes it easy to navigate and explore areas. It covers more than 15 million points or locations of interest. The A-GPS installed in it provides navigation for walking or driving. The good thins is that it comes with a three month integrated license. It has a 5megapixel camera with Carl Zesis optics, dual LED flash and video light capture which gives better, clearer and sharp images and videos. In all these the images can be edited immediately, without transferring them to PC. Images taken by N79 can be geotagged to specific locations. It has a good memory slot/card which can store 3000 songs, around 2,500 pictures and upto four hours of DVD quality video clips which can be organized by albums or tags. These can be uploaded directly to share on Ovi or third party services. The high speed 3.5 HSDPA and Wi – Fi makes it easy to upload images or listen to latest music in the town. With this highly packed mobile one can log on to the online communities like friendster, flickr or U Tube. That’s something good for those who wish to see flicker or upload images from it or those who want to write or upload data on blogs while on wheels. To add glamour to this mobile the features 330 minutes of talk time and standby time of 372 hrs. It has a 16m TFT display with resolution of 240*320 pixels, inbuilt memory of 50 MB which can be upgraded upto 8GB. Connectivity options too are good – with WI-FI, bluetooth with A2DP, USB connector, EDGE, GPRS and WAP, making it a versatile mobile. Nokia N79 comes with Xpress Smart covers available in light sea blue, espresso brown, olive green, white and coral red covers. Nokia N79, the next in the N Series mobiles of Nokia is a multimedia phone which gives easy application and usage for music, navigation, video, television, imaging, games and business mobility. It is one phone which brings the best in terms of quality and productivity. Priced in a range of Rs 19,300 to Rs 20,755; it’s a good multimedia mobile.

Fuizy Martin is a well known writer. She has written many articles on nokia mobiles, laptops, LG mobiles, nokia mobiles, digital camera and so on.

However, device drivers are coded differently for conforming to the requests of the application and the features of the hardware component. >

Device drivers act as programs tasked to translate application or user requests into a form comprehensible to the hardware. Despite the diversity of features coded directly into an application, it does not contain the necessary procedures that can allow it to directly relay its requests to a hardware device.

They are programmed to receive related software requests for using the features and functions of the corresponding hardware device. These requests usually take the form of high-level codes from a programming language used in the creation of the software.

Device drivers subsequently convert such related application or user requests into machine language or codes comprehensible to the hardware component after it receives the requests. The result would be the implementation by the hardware device of the related application or user requests.

A programming language called Assembly has the capability to directly tap into the functionality of a device. However, it is not compatible with the design and complexity required by user’s for high-end applications.

A simple example of such device driver activity is when a user tries to view a music file using a third-party application such as Windows Media Player. The media application then relays the user’s instructions to the sound device through the use of the audio device driver. The user can subsequently view the audio data contained in the music file through the speakers or headphones attached to the sound card of the machine.

Hardware devices also require the capability of device drivers to provide users with the ability to directly manipulate its functionality. Aside from using a third-party program to achieve this, a user may change the settings and configurations of a hardware device using its respective drivers. This is usually the case of display and sound devices installed in the computer.

However, the correct device drivers need to be installed before a related application or a user can manipulate a hardware device and use its bundled functions or features. One should always consider these factors when installing the correct drivers for a particular hardware device: the version of the operating system used; manufacturer of the device and the model or make of the hardware component.

NTP Server Operation

A NTP server can operate in three modes: unicast; anycast and multicast. In unicast and anycast modes, the client transmits a NTP request message to the server. The server responds with a NTP time message that the client uses for time synchronisation. In multicast mode, NTP time messages are broadcast at periodic specified intervals.

NTP Reference Clocks

Primary NTP servers can synchronise with a number of external reference time sources. The GPS (Global Positioning System) is often used to provide an accurate timing reference. There is also a number of national time and frequency radio broadcasts available. The WWVB radio time broadcast is transmitted from Colorado and covers most of the US. The DCF-77 radio time signal is broadcast from Frankfurt, Germany, and covers much of central and Western Europe. The MSF radio time signal is broadcast from Rugby, UK, and covers the British Isles and much of Western Europe. Other local time and frequency radio broadcasts include: TDF, France, and CHU, Canada.

NTP Versions

The current release of NTP is version 4. The only significant modification to the protocol between versions 3 and 4 is a slight header re-interpretation to accommodate IPv6.

SNTP Simple Network Time Protocol

SNTP is a simplification of the Network Time Protocol, where the complexities of the full-blown protocol are not required. SNTP can be implemented when the high synchronisation performance of NTP is not required. The message format of the SNTP protocol is almost identical to that of the NTP protocol. However, the complex subroutines designed to maintain a highly accurate synchronised time are removed or simplified. Small computers with reduced processing power, such as micro-controllers or monitoring equipment most often use SNTP. The SNTP and NTP protocols are fully interchangeable, a SNTP client can synchronise to a NTP server without any issues.

More Information: NTP RFC’s

The original Network Time Protocol was introduced in RFC 958 (Request for Comments: 958). The full NTP version 3 protocol and synchronisation algorithms are described in RFC 1305. The SNTP version 4 protocols are described in RFC 2030.

We all like to think that we are never going to be involved in a crisis or any scenario where risk is running high. Unfortunately for some, their day-to-day jobs involve encountering risk and putting their lives at risk for the good of others.

Very often, working in high risk environments can be difficult, especially if its on foreign soil. Not knowing your surroundings and working with people from different cultures can often be very stressful work. This is where GPS technology can help.

GPS Technology utilises a network of satellites orbiting earth to send and transmit signals back to devices on the ground, at sea and in the air. Satellite technology is ideal for people working in remote locations as it doesnt rely on cell towers and the signal is transmitted directly to the satellite from the device. In certain circumstances, i.e. in a dense forest or built up city area the signal may falter a little but at sea, in the air or on the ground it is usually a very reliable technology and helps teams in situations liaise with central management teams regarding locations, risk and general communication.

The areas of high impact when it comes to Crisis Management technology are places like the 3rd world countries. These countries often span a vast area of expansive land and aid workers travel from village to village trying make sure inhabitants get what they need to survive. Naturally, as people try to do good others will try to hijack this work for their own needs.

This is a perfect example of where Crisis Management technology can help. Not only do the central teams know the exact location of the convoys but they can also advise of, and how to avoid, potential risk situations by using the GPS technology at hand, both by tracking and communicating those on the ground.

With GPS Technology is easy for central teams to deploy backup to the exact location of a situation. It enables teams to be responsive with accurate information, which ultimately saves lives and allows for critical missions to succeed.

Rudraksha Power unleashed

Rudra Centre has been involved on very intensive study on the effects of Rudraksha Beads and in the past six months,discovered new facts which were unknown till date. Studies done jointly with Doctors and Scientists from India and abroad have clearly shown that Rudraksha Power has been untapped of its true capacity till date. We have now discovered the true Secret of Rudraksha Power.

>> Rudraksha is the most powerful blessing on the Earth with capacity to change your destiny.

>> It pulls you away from the limitations of your birth chart.

>> It pacifies unfavourable planets in your chart.

>> It removes the blockage from your system making you whole and divine.

>> IT’S MORE POWERFUL THAN ANY KNOWN REMEDY TILL DATE.

The secret lies in selecting quality beads and most important assembling it correctly in a necklace or bracelet, and then chanting the appropriate mantra’s to invoke the power.Anyone can sell Rudraksha as a bead, but to sell it as a power bead and unleash its power needs true knowledge. Without this knowledge only a fraction of its power is realised.All Rudraksha malas and combinations from Rudra Centre are henceforth being sent according to the new Research. We recommend clients to get the beads strung from us rather than string themselves. Without correct stringing style, Rudraksha bead do not form a circuit and do not give effect. The most powerful combination of beads can become non effective if not strung in the correct style. This correct stringing pattern has been revealed to Rudra Centre after intensive research and will be used for the benefits of our clients.

Experience the Unleashed Power of Rudraksha Science Therapy

According to Jabalopanishad the gifting of Rudraksha fetches high merits (punya). Give then to your near and dear ones and help them live a complete life.

We do therapies for serious illness (physical/mental). Please e-mail us for details.

Bold mention in Vedic Puranas, Upanishads, Srimadbhagawad, as being most powerful aid to alignment of self to God and for living fulfilled lives.

These books have specific reference to 1 mukhi to 21 mukhi Rudraksha, each capable of aligning the positive energies around us to specific aspects of health, happiness, spiritual fulfillment, prosperity, creativity, intuitive ability, material fulfillment, family harmony, attraction, self-empowerment, and fearless life.

If you are interested to know something more on Rudraksha Science Therapy and other details,you are welcome to the Rudraksha Science Therapy site.

At Ocean and Earth Science at the University of Southampton we offer a BSc Geophysical Sciences geophysics degree that ranks highly in both student satisfaction and career prospects.

Indeed, students on geophysics degrees at the University of Southampton recently reported an incredible 100% satisfaction rate in a national survey.
But it is the strength and prestige of this geophysics degree that will open doors to a wide range of employment opportunities. That is because potential employers view graduates of our Ocean and Earth Science programmes as superbly qualified scientists, with excellent personal and transferable skills in numeracy, communication and team working, according to feedback.

If you have the drive and ambition, and a love for geophysical sciences, the career opportunities once you graduate with your BSc Geophysical Sciences geophysics degree are enormous. For example, among our geophysics degree graduates is James Adcock, now senior geophysicist for a company specialising in shallow and archaeological geophysics.

James now works behind the scenes on the Channel 4 programme Time Team. He said: I have specialised in one area, called GPR (ground penetrating radar), but use all of the techniques initially learnt at Southampton in the work I undertake.

We will consider your geophysics degree application as soon as possible after it arrives at the University. In selecting applicants, we use the information provided on the UCAS form to determine whether you have the potential to flourish within Ocean and Earth Science.

Candidates who are predicted to attain our standard degree offers will be invited to visit the University and the waterside campus. During this visit you will meet with one of our academic staff to discuss the offer and explore how your interests and aspirations fit with the course. This formal interview also gives us the opportunity to get to know you.

C language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie had taken a decade to become the most popular language amongst programmers. But, with time programmers found that programming in C became tedious cause of its structural syntax. and Before it emerged as a programming language, C++ was a dominant player in the trade.primary goals that the creators of this language was to create a language that could tackle most of the things that C++ offered while getting rid of some of the more tedious tasks that came with the earlier languages.

In 1990 James Gosling,Bill Joy and others at Sun Microsystems began developing a language called Oak. Gosling called the language Oak in honor of a tree that could be seen from his office window. Sun found that Oak could not be trademarked because of a product already using the name. After sessions in January 1995, The meeting, arranged by Kim Polese where about a dozen people got together with James Gosling,and the final suggest names were Silk, DNA, Ruby, WRL and Java by the team in meeting But the other names could not be trademarked. So finally, name java was first suggested by Chris Warth. because it sounded the coolest and decided to go ahead with it.

This group wanted household items devices like thoughtful toasters, sagacious Salad Shooters and lucid lamps. To communicate with each other. To serve these goals, Oak needed to be Platform independent,Compact and Extremely reliable. so,The first public implementation was Java 1.0 in 1995. It made the promise of “Write Once, Run Anywhere”, with free run times on popular platforms. It was fairly secure and its security was configurable, allowing for network and file access to be limited.

By 1994 Sun’s Hot Java browser appeared. It was Written in Java in only a few months,and it illustrated the power of applets, programs that run within a browser, and also the capabilities of it for speeding program development. this language quickly received widespread recognition and expectations grew for it to become the dominant software for consumer applications and browser.

but,the early versions of it did not possess the breadth and depth of capabilities needed for client applications. Applets became popular and remain common but don’t dominate interactive or multimedia displays on web pages. It’s capabilities grew with the release of new and expanded versions and it became a very
popular language for development of enterprise, or middle ware, applications like on line web stores, transactions processing, database interfaces.

Today,It has become quite common on small platforms such as cell phones and PDAs.It not only permeates the Internet, It is the invisible force behind many of the applications and devices that power our day-to-day lives. From mobile phones to handheld devices, games and navigation systems to e-business solutions, Java is everywhere.

We are a global leader in the development of state-of-the-art of Computer hardware diagnostic tool. The testing tools are designed to reduce the expenses associated with the repair and building of computers: thus limiting downtime, unnecessary repair, unwarranted technical support, excessive warranty issues and costly RMA returns.
Our company’s comprehensive computer hardware diagnostic tool specifically targets the four key phases of a PC’S life-cycle: Hardware Development, Computer Manufacturing, PC Maintenance, and Customer Support. Award Winning Computer hardware diagnostic tool, used to diagnose problems on a PC running in Windows or a DOS environment.
Our Professional PC hardware diagnostic tool allows its user to maintain quality service and support during the four phases of a PC’s life cycle. The Professional version of our Computer hardware diagnostic tool has the added ability to perform hundreds of extensive test routines which can better assist in detecting problematic PC hardware failures.
By including our Computer hardware diagnostic tool in your tool-kit, the professional technician can be assured that both valuable time and money will be saved. The features of the Professional version include a detailed reporting of the computer’s components and operating system.
In addition, extensive information about the computer’s processor, memory, hard drives, CD/DVD drives, floppy drives, monitor, video card, network card, modem, sound cards, keyboard, mouse, serial ports, USB, PCI, system board devices, and more.

Additional features for our computer hardware diagnostic tools include the ability to select and execute extensive tests for your processor, memory, hard drives, CD/DVD drives, floppy drive, monitor, video card, network card, modem, sound cards, keyboard, mouse, serial port, and USB. Our Computer hardware diagnostic tool has the added ability to run a set of tests individually or all at once, and then create a report from the results.
This report could be saved for future reference, printed or e-mailed to a help desk operation or other technicians for further analysis. No matter what operating system is installed on your PC (Windows, Linux, DOS), simply boot up from our specially configured floppy drive’s, CDROMS or USB drives, and run complex tests on your hardware.

Computer hardware diagnostic tool intended for (PC Support Technicians, Computer Maintenance and Computer Hardware Troubleshooting. This version is compatible with the following operating systems Windows 2000, 2000 Pro, XP, Windows 2003, Windows Vista and Windows 7. It is recommended to have at least 20MB free space on your hard drive and 64MB of memory.

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